How We Learned About Viruses and What They’ve Taught Us About Life

Viruses have been and continue to be a puzzle to solve, and the more we learn about them the more we learn about fundamentals of life in general. Until the electron microscope and the ultracentrifuge became available from 1935 to 1940, no one could see or chemically analyze a virus. But over 40 years earlier,... Continue Reading →

From Da Vinci to a Constraint Problem

I was going through a copy of Leonardo da Vinci's notebooks, and the following short passage caught my attention. To heat the water for the stove of the Duchess, take four parts of cold water and 3 parts of hot water. "Cold water" and "hot water" are both vague terms. But given that this was... Continue Reading →

Themes Common to Chemistry, Biology and Society

It does not often occur to us that there are four common themes shared by chemistry, biology and human societies: unity, continuity, diversity and interaction. Unity There is unity in chemistry because all matter consists of atoms subject to nature‚Äôs four forces. With the intake of the appropriate energy, the electrons of any substance, and... Continue Reading →

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