The false dichotomy of economics versus environment has long existed because it is unfortunately too easy to sweep health and environmental costs under the rug or to have government consistently pick up the bill for consequences of short-sighted “growth”.
Here’s a letter sent to the Economist by former World Bank, senior vice president, Vinod Thomas, specifically arguing that by addressing climate change we are really safeguarding the economy in the long run.
It is true that climate change is not just an environmental problem; it cuts across all activities. Yet the recipe for economic growth from mainstream economists, including those of the The Economist newspaper, disregards climate change. Yes economic textbooks cover externalities or spillover effects, but these have not been integral to growth analysis. A search finds abundant climate studies, but less than 0.5% of the numerous growth articles over the past 50 years seem to factor climate effects.
That allows politicians such as Jair Bolsonaro, Brazil’s president, to argue that environmental protection is inimical to growth,even as the emerging reality is the opposite. American policy too, sees any deregulation, including policy that mortgages the environment, as pro growth. Yes environmental destruction may boost short term growth, but the climate outcomes hurt long term growth and welfare.
So changing the conduct of growth economics is essential if we are to avert a climate catastrophe.Unless the economics profession stops ranking and rewarding countries based primarily on how much they deregulate and boost short term GDP, the climate action that you rightly call for will continue to lag dangerously.
Here is another discussion from the journal Nature that is more detailed and broader in scope:
The Marcel Laurin Woodland Park is all too easy to under-appreciate. Drive or cycle by it too quickly, and it could easily go unnoticed because of its size–it’s not one of Montreal’s largest regional wooded areas. But once inside the woods, one realises that it is a special part of Montreal’s parks and protected woodlands, which combine to hold 75% of the city’s approximately 1.2 million trees. It gives citizens easy access to wildlife, which is key since not all can afford to travel far to experience it. Still a long way to becoming a mature forest, the woodland is in part a wetland . Especially in the springtime, the water that it collects allows dead leaves and other lingering organic material to decompose, increasing the availability of nutrients. These lead to a diversity of fauna and flora.
Some of its Fauna
The common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis), like all reptiles in Quebec, is not poisonous to humans. It’s a good thing because after ignoring my advice, a student of mine once picked up a baby garter and was lightly bitten on the thumb. When defiant students are not around 🙂 , the snakes feed off the woodland’s slugs and toad-eggs. The adults form a mating ball consisting of several males competing for a single female, which eventually gives birth to live offspring. They were considerably widespread on the island as far back as the 1960s when I remember seeing garter snakes on a weekly basis during my childhood in St. Leonard. But that suburb of Montreal, like the rest of the city, has lost most of its wetlands. A stream that once ran through the former St-Leonard site has totally disappeared and though memories of some citizens have not yet faded, the biological diversity in many areas is long gone.
The availability of nutrients in the wetland makes the area rich in insect life which attract a variety of birds. In the Marcel Laurin Woodland, I’ve seen cardinals throughout the year along with wood peckers, birds that are rarely seen by citizens in the more densely urbanised sections of the island. Thanks to the efforts of amateur ornithologists who reported their sightings to Regroupement Québec Oiseaux, the organisation was able to include them in the ÉPOQ database. Here are some of the ones people and I have spotted in the woodland. From left to right are the the black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus); the eastern kingbird (Tyran tritri); magnolia warbler(Setophaga magnolia); hairy woodpecker (Picoides villosus); andthe least flycatcher (Empidonax minimus). (The first pic is mine and was taken in Marcel Laurin; the rest are from Wiki)
Paruline à tête cendrée. Famille des Parulidés. Ordre : Passériformes
the woodland holds a certificate from the University of Kansas’ Monarch Waystation Program, and in 2009 it received significant support numerous partners for the planting of native grasses and milkweed necessary for the Monarch butterfly’s feeding and reproductive needs.
I have yet to see monarchs in the park, which does not necessarily mean they don’t come by, but I also noticed some replanting of milkweed late in the summer of 2016. Thus the project described above is still a work in progress.
Some of its Flora and an Unwelcome Guest
Drawn to the borders of the Marcel Laurin’s stream are two dominant species, the silver maple and the red ash. One of the drier areas also has a small strand of at least 20 scattered beeches. A few years ago, invasive species such as the European and adler buckthorn were removed to help indigenous species such as the ash and maple, when suddenly the former was invaded by the Emerald Ash Borer (EAB), an insect whose larvae can girdle and kill trees. The threat is serious because 1 in every 6 trees in Montreal (and the majority of trees in Marcel Laurin Woodland) is an ash. In the past two years the city of Montreal has been forced to cut almost 8000 thousand severely infected ashes on the island. In that same time period, 37,000 infected trees have been treated with TreeAzin
The insecticide consists of a 5% solution of azadirachtin, a compound found in neem seeds.
It is biodegradable and shows very low toxicity to mammals. It actually doesn’t kill the insects; it prevents the destructive larvae from developing. The reason that the larvae are so destructive is that until the late 1990s EAB was only found in eastern Russia and China, where the insect and ashes coevolved. Continuous election created a balance where EAB could complete its life cycle without killing trees. But in North America, in only about a decade, EAB has spread like wildfire from Michigan to Quebec and all the way to Texas. Out continent’s ash trees lack defensive mechanisms and compounds that are used by trees in Area where the insect is indigenous. In addition, our ash trees on this continent release compounds like hexanal, linalool and 13 other volatiles whose signals are picked up by the antennae of adult EAB , facilitating insect-movement from one host to another. This happens when they are chewing on the leaves. As the larvae develop they feed off the phloem, tissues that transport sugars from the leaves to the roots. The bark of the ash tree releases sequiterpene-compounds like α-cubebene, which also helps EAB adults locate a tree. And with more guests invited, enough tissue can be damaged to kill the tree.
What has not helped Montreal ash trees in the face of this EAB epidemic is climate change. Drought weakens trees, making them more vulnerable to insects. Winter temperatures below -33 º C are needed to kill dormant eggs. Montreal’s winters have been milder in recent decades. Environment Canada records indicate that we have not seen -33 º C in February since 1994; December temperatures have been above -33 º C since 1980, and in the last four years, the coldest January temperature was only -24.6 º C.
Review of the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), life history, mating behaviours, host plant selection, and host resistance
Therese M. Poland, Yigen Chen, Jennifer Koch, Deepa Pureswaran. The Canadian Entomologist. 147(03): 252-262.