From Playing Cards to Clover

If we keep looking at the same thing over a period of time with an uncritical, non-curious or distracted mind, attenuation sets in. And not only do our nervous systems tune out what’s commonplace, we also develop a false sense of history. We act as if things always were as they currently appear to be, and as if they will continue to be immune from flux.

Take playing cards as an example. If one was raised in North America and was not in contact with recent Spanish, Moroccan or Italian immigrants, it’s likely that the person has a fixed image of playing cards: 52 cards, 13 in each of four suits: clubs (clover), hearts, spades and diamonds with three of the cards being a king, queen and a jack.

Cards
The four suits of Neapolitan playing cards like those of other Spanish and Italian cards differ from French ones.  The former’s suits are far more similar to those of the first cards imported into Europe from Egypt in the 14th century. Pic by the author.

But these familiar cards are just one version, one that originated under the rule of  King Charles VI of France between 1380 and 1422. They continued to evolve a little later in the 15th century into their current forms which are neither unique nor static.  Take a tour of  cafes in Italy and you will see people playing with variations upon the theme of Italian-Spanish cards:  the king is still present, but there is a cavalier and a servant instead of the queen and jack, respectively. And there are only 40 cards with suits of clubs (large sticks), cups, swords and coins. These strike more of a resemblance to the first cards that were imported into Europe by Italian merchants around 1360. They discovered them while trading with Mamluks in Egypt. The cards had the same suits like those of contemporary Spanish and Italian cards, except that they featured a wand instead of a club.  Regional cards in Northeastern Italy still include a wand as a suit.

I often wondered why the word “club” is used for the clover leaf, one of the four suits of French cards. One hypothesis is that the suit was associated with commoners who grew clover alternately with their crops for fodder and in order to enrich the soil. But wooden clubs were also commoners’ weapon of choice, so the name “clubs” stuck to clover.

Clover is a legume whose roots include a mutualistic relationship between bacteria and plant cells.

cloverroots
The arrows point to white clover’s root- nodules, the site of nitrogen fixation by mutualistic bacteria. (The scale is in inches. 1 inch = 2.54 cm) Picture from NC State Extension Publications – NC State University

Thanks to bacterial enzymatic action, valuable nitrogen compounds are made from otherwise unusable nitrogen air molecules. In exchange, the bacteria receive shelter and sugars. Before many people developed the bad habit of adding herbicide to lawn grass, white clover seed  was often mixed with grass seed. Clover, when coexistent, helps grass by adding nitrogen compounds to the soil.

Like playing cards, not all clovers are alike. White clover is adapted to moist conditions. It should not be the only companion of lawn grass. Especially where grass grows on slopes where water drains easily, it makes more sense to grow bird’s foot trefoil. Scientifically known as Lotus corniculatus , it is another leguminous plant which does better in arid conditions and which will help abate dandelions. These unpopular relatives of the lettuce in turn out-compete grass when less water is available. A smaller legume with smaller yellow flowers, black medic, can do well in both moist and more arid soils. And of course there is a common origin to the genera of the bird’s foot (Lotus), to medic (Medicago) and to that of at least 238 Trifolium species, including red and white clover—-we see it in the similarity of leaflet shape, small pea-like flowers and to the all-important and welcome infection in their productive roots.

clover
Clover and clover-like plants belonging to 3 different genera of the legume family: from left to right, Trifolium repens (white clover), Lotus corniculatus (bird foot’s trefoil) and Medicago lupulina (black medic). Just about all Trifolium species are bee-pollinated. All pics from wikipedia commons.

Their family Leguminosae evolved about 56 million years ago, 9 million years after large dinosaurs went extinct. A few million years later, their most important clades separated. From genetic analyses, it’s been determined that their evolution occurred quickly, reminiscent of  the way playing cards quickly branched out in Europe. And like the latter,  the 18000 species of legumes are now spread all over the planet. They are being used for food, oil, lumber, fiber, medicines, aesthetic purposes and not least of all, for a vital role in the Earth’s nitrogen cycle.

SOURCES:

Lavin, et al. 2004. Evolutionary Rates Analysis of Leguminosae Implicates a Rapid Diversification of Lineages during the Tertiary. Systematic Biology 54 (4): 530-549 http://sysbio.oxfordjournals.org/content/54/4/575.full

The Botanical Garden. Phillips and Rix

The Mediterranean and Mediterranean World. Francois Braudel

The four suits of a pack of cards www.theguardian.com/books/booksblog/2013/dec/04/books-advent-calendar-4-four-card-suits

Have you ever wondered why the symbols on playing cards are called…. http://www.brierfieldbridgeclub.org.uk/themes/Have%20you%20ever%20wondered.htm

Perfectly Natural: Gardeners’ Love of Chemistry and Chemists’ Love of Plants

When citrus trees are grown from seed, they revert to a wild state and they can take decades to flower. About 15 years after germination I’m still waiting to see grapefruit blossoms in our kitchen, and of course the short days of long winters at high latitudes don’t help the matter. But a few years ago I was lucky enough to visit an organic citrus farm in the Orlando, Florida region, which turned out to be a far more magical treat than any ride at nearby DisneyWorld.

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On a single citrus tree we not only see fruits at various stages of ripening but also new flowers. Picture by the author.

Unlike most plants, those of the genus Citrus can simultaneously bloom while fruit is ripening elsewhere on the same tree. And the blossoms include some of the most delightful fragrances one will ever experience. And understanding how some of the compounds are synthesised by tangerines, lemons, grapefruits and plants in general makes one appreciate them even more.

At the level of citrus tissues, we see among different species variations upon a theme, the theme being what all plants of the genus have in common: bee-pollinated, bisexual flowers with usually 5 petals and 5 sepals and superior ovaries which become the fruit’s rind and flesh. Their leaves are evergreen and being part of subtropical trees, even the hardiest among them, the Meyer’s lemon, cannot survive temperatures below -5 °C.  At the biochemical level, in order to produce their special fragrance, there are variations upon themes as well.  Like many other plants they use a common precursor, the  molecule isopentenyl pyrophosphate, and with subtle changes they produce their beautiful characteristic bouquets which diffuse into our nasal receptors.

Using a process relying on thiamine(vitamin B1), among others, plants make isopentenyl pyrophosphate from acetyl coenzyme A, a metabolic byproduct of glucose known as pyruvate.   Isopentenyl pyrophosphate is a useful and ubiquitous molecule containing a 5-carbon atom-building block known as an isoprene unit. Some isopentenyl pyrophosphate molecules isomerize, meaning they rearrange with the same atoms, essentially shifting the double bond from the tail end over to the next pair of carbon atoms. The stable pyrophosphate group then leaves the molecule, leaving behind a reactive positive charge on a carbon atom at the head of the isopentenyl molecule. This is incidentally one of the many reasons plants need to absorb phosphorus from their environment.

Squalenesynthesis21
Simplified reaction mechanism(enzyme is not shown): electron flow reveals how isopentenyl pyrophosphate bonds to a charged molecule derived from isopentenyl pyrophosphate itself. The product, geranyl pyrophosphate is then used by lemons to make geraniol. Many other fragrant molecules are also derived from geranyl pyrophosphate. See diagram below. Diagram by the author.
geraniolderiv
The backbone of geranyl pyrophosphate is highlighted in red and is found in three citrus scents.

Notice that I emphasized that only some isopentenyl pyrophosphate isomerize and become ionized. The rest then attack and stick to the positively charged molecules, creating  geranyl pyrophosphate (C10H20O7P2). This molecule can eventually be used to make an important component of cell membranes known as cholesterol, but lemons and some non-citrus plants also use the right enzyme to react it with water to produce geraniol (C10H18O). Although roses produce far more of the scent, it is also a minor component of citrus peels. In addition, lemon plants can oxidize the alcohol group of geraniol to an aldehyde to produce two isomers of citral, A and B. The former has a strong lemon scent and the latter, which has the same formula but with an aldehyde group on the other side of the carbon-double-bond, has a less intense but sweeter odor.

One 2009 study by Citrus Research and Education Center in Florida analyzed the flower scents of 15 species of citrus plants including lemons, limes, sweet oranges and mandarins. Using a relatively new solvent-less technique known as solid phase microextraction (SPME) along with mass spec-gas chromatagrophy, they identified 70 compounds, of which 29 were identified for the first time. The compounds belonged to four different groups of terpenes, compounds that are all derived from previously mentioned isoprene units. One of those oxygenated terpenes, linalool, is an alcohol derivative of geranyl pyrophosphate. Of the two possible isomers of the compound, oranges produce the R-version of linalool, which smells like lavender blended with citrus. It attracts bees and me.

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A bee in a lemon flower. Linalool is one of the compounds that attracts the pollinator. Picture by the author.
geranyl pHosp deriv
More variation upon a theme at the molecular level: geranyl pyrophosphate, which is itself built up from two isoprene units, goes on to be the precursor of four other key compounds found in the floral essence of several citrus plants. Structures by the author.

Twenty four and forty five percent of  the blossom-volatiles of sweet oranges and mandarins, respectively, consist of  ß -myrcene. This compound is yet another variation upon the theme of geranyl pyrophosphate. Instead of having an allylic alcoholic head, it has a pair of conjugated double-bonded carbons and a pleasant fragrance. The same fruit blossoms and those of certain limes and lemons also produce of yet another geranyl pyrophosphate-derivative known as E-ocimene. Its aroma has been described as woody, green and tropical, an indication of how difficult it is for humans to describe smells. The difficulty becomes more pronounced when the isolated compounds of the labs force us to perceive “solo performances” while the reality of nature’s citrus blossoms present us with a symphony.

Sources:

The Botanical Garden. Ryx and Phillips. Firefly.

A comparison of citrus blossom volatiles. Phytochemistry 70 (2009) 1428–1434
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19747702

Principles of Biochemistry. Lehninger.

The Merck Index. Twelfth Edition

Myrcene as a Natural Base Chemical in Sustainable Chemistry: A Critical Review

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/cssc.200900186

Deserving Fame: the Trembling Aspen

People who grow plum trees in their backyards or farms realize that these plants not only reproduce sexually by means of their fragrant flowers, but they can also establish a ramet. A ramet is a colony of clones produced by roots that surface from the ground and which then develop into full trees. Barring mutations, the new shoots, called suckers, are genetically identical to the parent plant. This also occurs in the wild. The world’s largest known organism, by mass, is a ramet of trembling aspen trees covering 43 hectares in the Wasatch Mountains in Utah. It is named Pando, Latin for “I spread”.

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The arrows reveal three clones, encircling my larger plum tree.
Fishlake-NF_Pando_USFS
Pando, the giant ramet in Utah. Source: Fishlake National Forest

The aspen, Populus tremuloides, is one of many species of the genus, Populus. The tremuloides part of its scientific name, which designates its species, and the “quaking” or “trembling” part of two of its many common names originate from the fact that in the wind, its leaves tremble persistently. Mechanically it happens because the petiole (the long part attaching the leaf to the stem) is flatter than usual and also because the petiole’s flat part is at right angles to the plane of the leaf. When a leaf of the trembling aspen is disturbed by the wind, as the leaf turns, the flat surface of the petiole is then exposed to the same force and turns it back to its original position. Then the cycle repeats.

As to why such a feature has evolved, interesting hypotheses from ecologists and botanists have been proposed. The trembling may help the leaves absorb additional CO2, prevent excessive heat buildup and conserve water. It may also deter insects from feeding on the leaves.

Ecologically, the trembling aspen can play a key role as an intermediate tree towards the succession of more mature forests. Forest fires actually stimulate the aspen to clone itself; a ramet of 100 000 to over 200 000 suckers per hectare can prop up after a fire. They help feed a variety of wildlife including deer, sheep, elk, voles, hares and porcupines. When beavers chew aspens down, the cutting action, like fires, stimulates them to produce suckers.

Another intriguing adaptation of the trembling aspen is the way it responds to insects such as the aspen tortrix (a caterpillar) after they start to feed on its leaves. Their cells begin to synthesize salicortin and tremulacin, two glycosides that are toxic to insects.

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These compounds are probably derived from phehylpropanoids, which are in turn made from aromatic amino acids. Since nitrogen is often a limiting factor for plants, it is one of the reasons that the protective compounds are only made when the need arises. You may also notice that, in both toxic compounds, the aromatic part attached to a pair of oxygen atoms is the basic structure of salicylic acid (aspirin’s raw material). The former is also chemically related to a pair of other natural products found in aspen, populin and salicin.

This remarkable set of adaptations of the aspen tree is why it’s the most ubiquitous tree in the world’s second largest country, Canada. It is found in all 10 provinces and two of the three territories, coping in a variety of soils and at a range of average temperatures cooler than those of the rest of the continent. Although it is difficult to predict the impact of greenhouse gas emissions on forest distributions in a pinpoint fashion, unabated climate change will move aspen forests away from lower latitudes.

aspen-current-canada_b_2000
From http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/forests/climate-change/forest-change/17778

Sources:

Terrestrial Ecosystems. Aber and Melillo. Harcourt Academic Press. 2001

US Department of Agriculture —Forest Service

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1034/j.1399-3054.2001.1120413.x/full

https://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/silvics_manual/Volume_2/populus/tremuloides.htm

http://www.yourleaf.org/blog/andrea-bake/2014-01-27/be-or-not-be-trembling-aspen

https://nativeplants.evergreen.ca/search/view-plant.php?ID=00528

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